What PPE Should Be Worn While Using Epoxy Resin? Plus, Safety Tips for This Popular Industrial Material

Epoxy resin coatings are widely used in various industries to protect water pipelines, floorings, concrete, and more. This versatile substance acts as surface protection and safeguards materials from corrosion. However, although it is widely used, it can cause serious health issues if not handled properly.

In this article, International Enviroguard discusses what epoxy is, what the main epoxy advantages and disadvantages are (including the possible health safety issues such as epoxy sensitization), and what type of personal protective equipment (PPE) is appropriate to wear while handling this material. 

What is Epoxy?

Epoxy is a versatile chemical compound that features a range of unique mechanical and resistance properties. Generally, three types or classes of epoxy exist: pure epoxy resin, polyester resins (e.g., powder coatings used on refrigerators), and epoxy acrylates. Each of these classes have slightly different properties (e.g., epoxy acrylates generally have a faster curing time than pure epoxy resins) and therefore might be preferred over the alternatives in specific situations.

Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, typically abbreviated as BADGE or DGEBA, is a liquid epoxy resin and accounts for more than 75 percent of epoxy resins used industrially. Epoxy resins also contain a curing agent, typically from a class of compounds called amines (e.g., polyamide and cycloaliphatic amine). Other chemicals present in epoxy materials may include fillers, solvents, and pigments. 

Common Uses, Advantages, and Disadvantages of Epoxy Resin 

You typically see epoxy resins being used in industries such as construction, industrial tooling, electrical systems, marine, automotive, and aerospace. Epoxy resin can even be bought and purchased to use in the home for DIY craft projects. Let's take a look at some key epoxy advantages and disadvantages.

Epoxy Advantages

Generally speaking, an epoxy coating offers excellent UV, heat, and abrasion resistance to any materials to which it is applied. It helps prevent corrosion and as a sealant it protects surfaces, including pipelines, metal, floors, countertops, and equipment parts. Epoxy material dries quickly and is extremely hard and durable.

Epoxy also acts as a great insulator. It's often found in transistors and electrical circuits to protect parts from moisture, dirt, dust, and other debris that can damage materials over time.

Perhaps the most desirable advantage of epoxy is its powerful, high-performance adhesive capability. It tends to be much more resistant to chemicals and heat than other glues and is therefore considered a safer, longer-lasting option. Epoxy is commonly used to bond even heavy materials such as concrete, wood, metal, glass, stone, and plastics.

From an aesthetic standpoint, epoxy provides a shiny clear coating to surfaces. However, pigments and other compounds can be easily added to the resin so that once dried and hardened, it resembles other materials such as granite. This provides a cost-effective solution for builders and homeowners looking to avoid the high price of stone, while still ensuring a high quality, abrasion-resistant surface for countertops and other surfaces.

Epoxy Disadvantages

Epoxy contains chemicals that may be hazardous to human health. For example, exposure via inhalation or direct contact (especially when excessive or prolonged) can lead to acute issues such as:

  • Skin irritation (contact dermatitis)
  • Allergic skin reactions (allergic dermatitis)
  • Eye irritation
  • Asthma-like symptoms and breathing problems due to irritation of the respiratory tract (e.g., nose, throat, and lungs)
  • Headaches
  • Dizziness
  • Nausea
  • Confusion

For pregnant women, exposure to certain compounds in epoxy may increase the risk of fertility issues, miscarriage, birth defects, and stillbirth, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In men, certain solvents commonly added to epoxy resins (though not the epoxy resin itself) may reduce sperm count. Certain older forms of epoxy resin containing a compound called epichlorohydrin have been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals, suggesting that it may be cancer-causing in humans, as well. However, newer forms of epoxy appear to be less likely to pose this risk, given the lower amounts of epichlorohydrin they contain. 

What is epoxy sensitization?

Epoxy sensitization is another potential disadvantage of this popular industrial material. This is the process by which a person's immune system becomes increasingly sensitive or reactive to epoxy resins and chemicals found in them. In essence, epoxy sensitization causes a person to become allergic to the substance. The result is that even small amounts of exposure in the future may lead to a strong allergic reaction. Signs and symptoms include irritation to the eyes, nose, throat, lungs, and skin, ranging from mild to severe. These symptoms aren't always localized—for example, a person who has developed epoxy sensitization due to repeated exposure may exhibit eye irritation, even though the compound never came in contact with their eyes.

Recommended Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) When Working With Epoxy Resin Coatings (Plus Additional Safety Tips)

The health risks of epoxy are concerning, but the good news is there are ways to mitigate your risk. By adhering to the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's recommendations provided in the Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) for materials, employers can protect their workforce from the potentially hazardous effects of accidental contact. 

Here are a few of the most commonly recommended items of PPE for handling epoxy: 

  • Wear eye protection, such as chemical goggles with side shields or goggles with a full-face shield
  • Respirators: in addition to proper ventilation strategies (see below), respirators can help prevent inhalation of chemical vapors emitted by epoxy resins; respirators should be appropriately fitted to the wearer as outlined by the manufacturer's recommendations and should be in accordance with the OSHA Respirator Standard, 29 CFR 1910.13
  • Gloves: opt for gloves made with materials such as ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) laminate, butyl rubber, nitrile rubber, or neoprene; cotton and latex are not sufficient, and workers should always use proper hand hygiene techniques when donning or doffing gloves (e.g., wash hands with soap and water for 20 seconds before and after) 
  • Sleeves and coveralls: these types of PPE are excellent options for protecting the wearer from splashes and chemical contact through clothing; disposable options are often ideal as these reduce the risk of cross-contamination during transport
  • Aprons: for added protection, chemical resistant-aprons made with butyl rubber or related material may be warranted
  • Boots: sturdy boots improve wearer safety and provide barrier against accidental splashes; for enhanced protection, many workplaces encourage the use of shoe covers and the practice of taping pants inside the boot to reduce the risk of skin exposure

International Enviroguard offers a variety of chemical resistant coveralls and aprons, shoe covers, and sleeves that can help prevent exposure or contact with epoxy. If you’re looking for protection when handling epoxy, contact us to find the protection your workers need to work safely and comfortably.

Contact Int Enviroguard

In addition to wearing appropriate PPE whenever handling epoxy, applicators should be familiar with best practice techniques to further enhance their protection and reduce risk of exposure. These guidelines include:

  • Remove all jewelry prior to working with epoxy—chemicals can easily collect under rings, necklaces, bracelets, earrings, and more
  • Change clothes after working with epoxy, ideally before leaving work; this reduces the risk of epoxy spreading to other areas, such as inside personal vehicles (consider storing work clothing in sealed containers for added protection during transport). Disposable PPE is a great alternative because it not only protects underlying clothing, but it also prevents the spread of epoxy after handling.
  • If clothing gets soiled with epoxy, remove the contaminated article of clothing immediately 
  • Ensure proper ventilation to prevent chemical vapors from the epoxy product to build-up in the work area; consider using local exhaust systems, open windows, and fans (while ensuring that fans are indeed drawing air away from the workspace and not re-circulating harmful vapors toward workers)

Finally, it's important to have contingency plans in place in the event that accidental exposure does occur. Even with appropriate ventilation and PPE strategies, accidents can and do happen. In these cases, follow all relevant workplace and SDS policies and procedures. Procedures may include: 

  • For accidental inhalation: Bring the individual to a place where he or she can get fresh air. Have them rest in a comfortable position and ensure they stay warm. Maintain an open airway and loosen any tight clothing, e.g., collars, ties, and belts.
  • For accidental ingestion: Rinse the mouth out with water. Remove dentures. You can provide a few small glasses of water or milk, but stop if the individual feels sick. Vomiting could be dangerous and should not be induced unless as directed by a medical professional. If the individual vomits, position them to ensure that vomit does not accidentally enter the lungs. As with accidental inhalation, the individual should be brought to a place where he or she can get fresh air. Have them rest in a comfortable position and ensure they stay warm and can breathe easily. 
  • For accidental skin exposure: Remove the substance from the skin immediately with soap and water or an approved skin cleaning agent. 

Workers should be encouraged to seek medical attention for all accidental exposures, especially if symptoms are severe or persist. 

Conclusion

Epoxy is a popular chemical compound used in a variety of settings, thanks to its powerful properties as an adhesive, sealant, UV-resistant, abrasive, and scratch-resistant material. Often used as a protective coating, epoxy can be found on flooring, concrete, countertops, pipelines, equipment parts, and more. All three types of epoxy—pure epoxy resin, polyester resins, and epoxy acrylates—may contain additional chemicals, including curing agents, fillers, and dyes or pigments, depending on the use and setting. 

Even though epoxy offers several advantages from a construction and industrial standpoint, it's not without its risks. Research suggests that epoxy contains chemicals that may increase the risk of long-term health problems, including infertility issues in both men and women. In the short-term, accidental contact, inhalation, or ingestion may lead to skin, eye, nose, throat, and lung irritation. A phenomenon known as epoxy sensitization—in which a person's immune system becomes increasingly sensitive to the chemicals in epoxy—could lead to allergic reactions, even in cases of very minimal exposure.

For these reasons, it's imperative for any person handling epoxy to be familiar with important safety strategies, including, but not limited to, appropriate ventilation techniques and PPE use. For more solutions on how to use epoxy more safely, contact International Enviroguard today. 

PPE for epoxy in a liquid state

When working with expoxy in a liquid form, International Enviroguard recommends our ChemSplash® 1 product line which includes chemical-splash coveralls, aprons, and sleeves.

PPE for epoxy powder coating

When working with epoxy powder coatings, we recommend our SMS, Body Filter 95+®, and MicroGuard MP® product lines, which help protect against dangerous particulates. We also offer tacky mats that can help capture epoxy powder and prevent it from spreading throughout a worksite via the bottom of shoes.

Resources:

  • https://docs.rs-online.com/bd85/0900766b815ecdaf.pdf
  • https://lifetimegreencoatings.com/how-do-epoxies-negatively-affect-our-health
  • https://www.coatingspromag.com/articles/safety/2016/11/working-safely-with-epoxy-coatings
  • https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/epoxy-coating
  • https://buildingwithchemistry.org/chemistry-in-bc/epoxies-in-building-and-construction/#:~:text=Epoxy%20resins%20are%20used%20in%20the%20manufacture%20of%20adhesives%2C%20plastics,in%20building%20and%20construction%20applications.
  • https://www.thomasnet.com/articles/chemicals/epoxy-essentials/
  • https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/materials-science/epoxy